JOURNALISTIEK | Reportage Hanoi, Vietnam

Draken, dromen en dollars

Het is een doordeweekse avond in Hanoi. Ik loop langs het standbeeld van Lenin. Op grote hoogte kijkt de socialistische leider uit over de stad. Aan de overkant ligt het Legermuseum, waar op de binnenplaats de wrakstukken van gevechtsvliegtuigen herinneren aan de twee verslagen westerse grootmachten, Frankrijk en de Verenigde Staten. Zo’n klein stukje stad, zo veel geschiedenis.

Maar Hanoi is geen stoffige stad die in het verleden is blijven hangen. Want onderaan het beeld van Lenin staat een groepje tieners te dansen op Lady Gaga. De muziek schalt uit de boxen die ze daar zelf hebben neergezet. De dansers halen alles uit de kast. De popkoningin zou trots zijn op haar kleine monsters, zoals ze haar fans noemt. Verderop hebben jongens met baggy broeken en petjes een deel van het park afgezet om te skateboarden. Daarnaast oefenen hun vrienden hun breakdance- en krumping-bewegingen. In een ander hoekje hebben de ballroomdansers zich verzameld. Die zijn wat ouder, de gemiddelde leeftijd is 40 jaar, gok ik. De salsadansers even verderop zijn weer wat jonger, dertigers zo te zien.

Nieuwe generatie

‘Is het hier altijd zo druk?’ vraag ik Linh, die onderaan het standbeeld een klein theestalletje heeft. ‘Iedere avond’, antwoordt ze. Deze jonge kunstenares zit momenteel krap bij kas en probeert wat bij te verdienen met haar theestalletje. Maar ze is meer bezig met haar vrienden die langskomen om haar gezelschap te houden, dan met eventuele klanten. Linh (25) behoort tot de nieuwe generatie Vietnamezen, de eerste die zonder oorlog en honger is opgegroeid, in een land dat steeds welvarender wordt.

Vietnam is booming zoals dat heet. Buitenlandse investeerders struikelen over elkaar heen. Hoewel Ho Chi Minhstad (vroeger Saigon) het economische hart van het land is, gaat het ook in Hanoi hard. De stad breidt zich in rap tempo uit. Ze telt inmiddels bijna 7 miljoen inwoners en barst uit haar voegen. Met name in de vastgoedsector valt dan ook veel te verdienen: een appartement in Hanoi kost bijna 1300 euro per vierkante meter. Dat is voor de meeste Vietnamezen – met een gemiddeld salaris van 800 euro per jaar – niet te betalen. Maar de Vietnamezen zijn inventief, ook op een vierkante meter kun je geld verdienen. Dat doet tenminste Ly (23) die zelfgemaakte sieraden verkoopt in wat niet meer is dan een hokje op Hang Gai (Straat van de Zijde), in het oude centrum. Ze spaart om uit te kunnen breiden. Dat ze daarvoor nog heel lang kralen zal moeten rijgen, deert haar niet.

Oude ambachten

Gelukkig ligt haar winkeltje in het toeristenkwartier van Hanoi. Hang Gai is een van de 36 straten die samen het gildenkwartier vormen. Het oude (toeristische) centrum ligt ten noorden van het meer van Hoan Kiem, het hart van de stad. Het gildenkwartier stamt uit de 13de eeuw. In die tijd behoorden de ambachtslieden en winkeliers die er woonden en werkten tot een gilde. Iedere gilde bestond uit families, meestal uit hetzelfde dorp, die naar de stad waren verhuisd om geld te verdienen. Elke groep families beheerste een bepaald ambacht dat werd doorgegeven binnen de gilde. Zo was Hang Gai de straat waar zijde werd bewerkt en verhandeld. Dat is nog steeds het geval, maar de waar is nu vooral gericht op toeristen. Veel zijde sjaals, kamerjassen en tassen dus, die heus niet allemaal meer ambachtelijk worden gemaakt. Net zoals de schoenen in Hang Giay niet meer door afstammelingen van de schoenmakersgilde worden vervaardigd, maar veelal uit Chinese fabrieken komen.

Ondanks de af- en aanvoer van toeristen, blijven de kronkelende straatjes een heerlijk doolhof om in te verdwalen. En er zijn genoeg eetstalletjes om even op krachten te komen met een pho bo, rijstnoedelsoep met rundvlees en veel verse kruiden, waaronder koriander, munt en citroengras. Pho is van oorsprong een noord-Vietnamees gerecht, maar het is tot nationaal gerecht gepromoot en in het hele land te krijgen. Na een pho is het heerlijk mensenkijken onder het genot van een glas bia hoi, vers bier. Het wordt dagelijks gebrouwen en afgeleverd bij de bia hoi-stalletjes in de stad. De meest populaire plek om het lichte bier (er zit 3 à 4 procent alcohol in) te drinken is bia hoi-corner, in het oude centrum. Op dit kruispunt zit op iedere hoek een bierstalletje. Voor 4000 dong (0,15 eurocent) per glas is het makkelijk om te blijven hangen.

Ondertussen lopen in het gildenkwartier de straatverkoopsters met hun traditionele conische hoeden met een snelle pas over straat. Ze komen meestal van het platteland, en proberen in de hoofdstad met de verkoop van groente en fruit geld te verdienen om hun gezin te onderhouden. Met hun waar in twee draagmanden verdeeld (ze hangen aan de uiteinden van een stok die ze op hun schouders laten schommelen), banen ze zich een weg tussen de motors.

Ronkende motoren

Die laatsten staan symbool voor de ontwikkeling die het land doormaakte. Voor de Doi Moi, de economische hervormingen in 1986, waren er nog geen motors in Hanoi. Iedereen verplaatste zich op de fiets, wat toen ook nog prima kon; de stad was nog niet zo uitgestrekt. Maar sinds Vietnam zich bekeerde tot het kapitalisme, hebben motors geleidelijk aan de fietsen vervangen in het straatbeeld. Wie nu nog met de fiets gaat, doet dat omdat hij geen motor kan betalen.

Het gevolg van deze grote sprong voorwaarts: enorme opstoppingen tijdens de spits en luchtvervuiling. Vele Hanoianen dragen dan ook SARS-achtige mondkapjes, in de hoop daarmee iets minder fijnstof binnen te krijgen. (Vrouwen voegen daar nog hoeden en handschoenen aan toe, om zich te beschermen tegen de zon. Een blanke huid is nog steeds een schoonheidsideaal in Vietnam.) Desondanks lijkt de regering voorlopig geen maatregelen te nemen om het aantal motoren terug te dringen.

Het populairste model is de Honda Wave, daarvoor was het de Honda Dream. Beiden zijn uit Japan geïmporteerd en behoorlijk duur voor de gemiddelde Vietnamees en zijn magere salaris. Gezinnen sparen er lang voor en gebruiken het vervolgens als vervoersmiddel voor de hele familie. Wie niet zo lang wil sparen of gewoon niet genoeg geld heeft, gaat voor een Chinese kopie. De trendgevoelige jeugd koopt het liefst een Vespa. De Piaggio-scooter wordt voornamelijk bereden door strak gekapte en perfect opgemaakte jonge Vietnamese vrouwen, gekleed volgens de laatste catwalktrends, inclusief torenhoge hakken.

Booming business

Phuc (28) en Tu (26) zijn zulke vrouwen. De dames hebben onder de naam Marron hun eigen kledinglijn en twee goedlopende winkels in hartje Hanoi. Beiden studeerden aan de kunstacademie. Phuc in Engeland, Tu in de Verenigde Staten. Eenmaal terug in Hanoi, inmiddels drie jaar geleden, vonden ze maar weinig kleren van hun gading. Ze hadden een Westerse smaak ontwikkeld en vonden in Hanoi vooral kleren afkomstig uit Chinese fabrieken. ‘Slechte kwaliteit en veel ruches’, zegt Tu met een afkeurende blik.

De jeugdvriendinnen begonnen samen kleding te ontwerpen. ‘We verkochten eerst aan vrienden en kennissen. We begonnen met een webwinkel, maar het liep zo goed dat we als snel een winkel openden.’ Ze bedienen de groeiende middenklasse van Hanoi, met name jonge vrouwen zoals zij zelf. Het loopt zo goed dat de onderneemsters binnenkort een derde filiaal openen in Hanoi. Daarna volgt Saigon. En het buitenland lonkt. Phuc en Tu behoren tot de yuppen van Vietnam. Niets in hen herinnert aan de sociale revolutie die het land onderging. Ze leiden een vrij en zorgeloos bestaan.

Kleurrijke propaganda

Vietnam is nog steeds een communistische eenpartijstaat. Oppositiepartijen worden de kop ingedrukt. Mensenrechtenactivisten en kritische bloggers belanden regelmatig in de gevangenis, waar ze vaak jaren zonder eerlijk proces worden vastgehouden. En net zoals in China is Facebook geblokkeerd. Maar de gemiddelde Vietnamees merkt hier allemaal weinig van. Het Facebook-verbod omzeilt iedereen met buitenlandse servers en de arrestaties worden in de door de staat gecontroleerde media niet vermeld. De meeste Vietnamezen kijken niet op of om naar de kleurrijke propagandaposters die overal in de stad hangen. En ze negeren de staatsberichten die iedere dag rond vijf uur ’s middags door de hele stad schallen.

Wel is er sprake van een sterk patriottisch gevoel. Zo wordt Ho Chi Minh, Oom Ho, zoals hij in Vietnam liefkozend wordt genoemd, nog steeds vereerd. Iedere stad heeft een standbeeld van de ‘Brenger van het Licht’ en zijn beeltenis hangt in alle officiële gebouwen. Sinds zijn dood ligt hij opgebaard in Hanoi. Dit alles tegen zijn wil, want hij had niets op met persoonsverheerlijking. Een keer per jaar gaat zijn gebalsemde lichaam naar Rusland voor onderhoud. Het mausoleum is dan gesloten.

De rest van het jaar staat er iedere dag opnieuw een lange rij voor het grauwe vierkante gebouw. Niemand mag stilstaan bij het lichaam, dus de rij is constant in beweging. Het is een belevenis om tussen alle schoolklassen te staan, voor wie een bezoek aan Oom Ho verplichte kost is. Hoeveel gegiechel er buiten in de rij nog is, bij de aanblik van degene die het land naar de onafhankelijkheid leidde, vallen ze allemaal stil. En anders zorgen de strenge bewakers daar wel voor. De pelgrimstocht voert – voor wie wil – ook nog langs de woning van Ho Chi Minh, een traditioneel houten huis op palen, en naar het Ho Chi Minh-museum.

Verliefde stelletjes

Wie hierna even genoeg heeft van al dit nationalistisch vertoon, wandelt door naar Ho Tay (West Lake), een gigantisch meer ten noorden van het mausoleum. Hier vechten vissers en stelletjes om een plekje langs de kant. De vissers winnen het meestal van de stelletjes, die graag een zwaanvormige waterfiets huren, om ongestoord te kunnen vozen. In een land waar seks voor het huwelijk nog taboe is en de meeste jongeren tot ze trouwen thuis wonen, zijn koppels op publieke ruimtes aangewezen om elkaar te ontmoeten. De bankjes op de oevers van het centrale meer van Hoan Kiem en de waterfietsen op Ho Tay zijn daarvoor enorm populair. Sinds kort loopt een smalle weg helemaal om West Lake heen. Op een paar vaste punten wordt er ook flink wat af geknuffeld en -gezoend. De motor of scooter dient dan als bankje.

Maar de meren en parken zijn er niet alleen om te vrijen. De Vietnamezen hechten veel belang aan een goede gezondheid en blijven graag fit. Deden ze dat tien jaar geleden nog met tai chi, nu is het aerobics dat de klok slaat. Groepjes hebben allemaal hun eigen plek, al dan niet met instructeur, in het laatste geval vaak ook met bijbehorende boxen. Dames van middelbare leeftijd staan in joggingbroek en witte gymschoenen te hupsen, vaak hebben ze ook nog een zonneklep op die recht uit de jaren ‘80 lijkt te komen. Verderop staan vrienden te badmintonnen, een van de favoriete sporten van Vietnamezen, ongeacht hun leeftijd. Maar ondanks alle vooruitgang is traditie in Vietnam nooit ver weg. De binnenplaatsen van de vele tempels die Hanoi rijk is, zijn aan het eind van de middag en in het weekend bezaaid met jongeren die oude Vietnamese vechtsporten beoefenen.

Rijzende draak

En zo weet het oude Hanoi zich staande te houden in het snel groeiende nieuwe Hanoi. De stad vierde afgelopen oktober haar 1000-jarig bestaan. Ze werd in de verschillende oorlogen bijna met de grond gelijk gemaakt, maar wist altijd als een feniks uit zijn as te herrijzen. Met haar talrijke meren, parken en oude bomen oogt Hanoi vandaag de dag nog steeds fris en groen, ondanks het toenemende verkeer. De statige Franse koloniale villa’s, al zijn ze niet allemaal even goed onderhouden, geven de stad een bepaald cachet. De talloze tempels zijn heerlijke toevluchtsoorden en voeren terug naar andere tijden, toen Hanoi nog Thang Long heette. Dat betekent Rijzende Draak, een naam die nu meer dan ooit van toepassing is. Hanoi staat met beide benen in de 21ste eeuw.

©Ghislaine van Drunen (December 2010)

 

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